It seems like nVidia deliberately or mistakenly misrepresented the GTX 970. There's a lengthy technical explanation on Anandtech, but basically it's effectively only a 3.5GB card with a weaker/slower memory subsystem than the 980. The remaining 512mb is actually there in another partition, but it runs too slow to be of much use. That may explain why the 980 performs significantly better in VRAM intensive games, like Shadow of Mordor. Combine that with the 960 only having 2GB VRAM and nVidia really seems to be shafting its customers in the VRAM department these days. This is basically planned obsolescence. They could give us 8GB cards right now that could comfortably get someone through this generation of games, but that would mean selling fewer cards. They'd rather sell us overpriced, gimped cards that will need to be replaced in a year. I guess they don't want a repeat of what happened last generation where people bought Geforce 8800 cards and hung onto them for four or five years because they were so much more powerful than the consoles.